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(LSO) - \u0110\u01b0\u1ee3c b\u1ea3o \u0111\u1ea3m b\u1edfi c\u00e1c nguy\u00ean t\u1eafc b\u00ecnh \u0111\u1eb3ng, \u0111\u1ed9c l\u1eadp x\u00e9t x\u1eed, quy\u1ebft \u0111\u1ecbnh theo \u0111a s\u1ed1, chi\u1ebfm t\u1ef7 l\u1ec7 l\u1edbn h\u01a1n so v\u1edbi th\u1ea9m ph\u00e1n trong h\u1ed9i \u0111\u1ed3ng x\u00e9t x\u1eed, h\u1ed9i th\u1ea9m nh\u00e2n d\u00e2n gi\u1eef vai tr\u00f2 h\u1ebft s\u1ee9c quan tr\u1ecdng \u0111\u1ed1i v\u1edbi c\u00e1c ph\u00e1n quy\u1ebft c\u1ee7a t\u00f2a \u00e1n. B\u00ean c\u1ea1nh \u0111\u00f3, h\u1ed9i th\u1ea9m nh\u00e2n d\u00e2n c\u0169ng l\u00e0 ng\u01b0\u1eddi th\u01b0\u1eddng xuy\u00ean g\u1eafn b\u00f3 v\u1edbi c\u1ed9ng \u0111\u1ed3ng d\u00e2n c\u01b0, n\u01a1i m\u00ecnh c\u00f4ng t\u00e1c, l\u00e0m vi\u1ec7c, tham gia gi\u00e1m s\u00e1t ho\u1ea1t \u0111\u1ed9ng t\u01b0 ph\u00e1p, g\u00f3p ph\u1ea7n tuy\u00ean truy\u1ec1n ph\u00e1p lu\u1eadt v\u00e0 l\u00e0 c\u1ea7u n\u1ed1i gi\u1eefa t\u00f2a \u00e1n v\u00e0 ng\u01b0\u1eddi d\u00e2n. B\u00e0i vi\u1ebft gi\u1edbi thi\u1ec7u nh\u1eefng n\u00e9t c\u01a1 b\u1ea3n v\u1ec1 kh\u00e1i ni\u1ec7m v\u00e0 nh\u1eefng v\u1ea5n \u0111\u1ec1 li\u00ean quan \u0111\u1ebfn th\u1ee7 t\u1ee5c b\u1ea7u, mi\u1ec5n nhi\u1ec7m, b\u00e3i nhi\u1ec7m h\u1ed9i th\u1ea9m nh\u00e2n d\u00e2n theo quy \u0111\u1ecbnh c\u1ee7a ph\u00e1p lu\u1eadt \u0111\u1ec3 th\u1ea5y r\u00f5 h\u01a1n v\u1ec1 vai tr\u00f2, v\u1ecb tr\u00ed c\u1ee7a ch\u1ee9c danh t\u01b0 ph\u00e1p n\u00e0y \u1edf n\u01b0\u1edbc ta hi\u1ec7n nay.\n\n\n\n
\"\"H\u1ed9i th\u1ea9m nh\u00e2n d\u00e2n theo quy \u0111\u1ecbnh hi\u1ec7n nay \u1edf Vi\u1ec7t Nam.\n\n\n\nKh\u00e1i ni\u1ec7m h\u1ed9i th\u1ea9m nh\u00e2n d\u00e2n\n\n\n\nTrong l\u1ecbch s\u1eed ng\u00e0nh t\u01b0 ph\u00e1p Vi\u1ec7t Nam t\u1eeb 1945 \u0111\u1ebfn nay, thu\u1eadt ng\u1eef ch\u00ednh th\u1ee9c th\u01b0\u1eddng \u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c d\u00f9ng \u0111\u1ec3 ch\u1ec9 ng\u01b0\u1eddi (nh\u1eefng ng\u01b0\u1eddi) \u0111\u1ea1i di\u1ec7n cho qu\u1ea7n ch\u00fang nh\u00e2n d\u00e2n tham gia x\u00e9t x\u1eed ho\u1eb7c tham gia t\u1ed1 t\u1ee5ng l\u00e0 \u201cph\u1ee5 th\u1ea9m\u201d, \u201ch\u1ed9i th\u1ea9m\u201d<1> .\n\n\n\nTh\u1ef1c ch\u1ea5t, \u201cph\u1ee5 th\u1ea9m\u201d, \u201ch\u1ed9i th\u1ea9m\u201d l\u00e0 c\u00e1c t\u1eeb c\u00f3 ngu\u1ed3n g\u1ed1c H\u00e1n (Trung Qu\u1ed1c), th\u1eadm ch\u00ed l\u00e0 c\u1ee5m t\u1eeb gh\u00e9p, \u0111\u1ebfn nay \u0111\u00e3 \u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c Vi\u1ec7t h\u00f3a. Do \u0111\u00f3, ngay trong cu\u1ed1n T\u1eeb \u0111i\u1ec3n H\u00e1n - Vi\u1ec7t c\u1ee7a \u0110\u00e0o Duy Anh c\u0169ng kh\u00f4ng \u0111\u01b0a ra \u0111\u1ecbnh ngh\u0129a \u201ch\u1ed9i th\u1ea9m\u201d c\u1ee5 th\u1ec3 l\u00e0 g\u00ec, tuy nhi\u00ean c\u00f3 gi\u1ea3i th\u00edch ngh\u0129a ri\u00eang r\u1ebd c\u1ee7a hai t\u1eeb \u201ch\u1ed9i\u201d v\u00e0 \u201cth\u1ea9m\u201d. Theo \u0111\u00f3, t\u1eeb \u201ch\u1ed9i\u201d c\u00f3 ngh\u0129a l\u00e0: \u201ch\u1ecdp nhau - c\u01a1 quan c\u00f3 nhi\u1ec1u ng\u01b0\u1eddi h\u1ecdp \u0111\u1ec3 l\u00e0m vi\u1ec7c - g\u1eb7p - \u00fd t\u1ee9 v\u00e0 s\u1ef1 l\u00fd h\u1ee3p nhau - b\u1ea3n l\u0129nh v\u00e0 s\u1ef1 t\u00ecnh h\u1ee3p nhau\u201d; t\u1eeb \u201cth\u1ea9m\u201d \u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c hi\u1ec3u l\u00e0 \u201cbi\u1ebft r\u00f5 t\u00ecnh h\u00ecnh - kh\u1ea3o x\u00e9t k\u1ef9 c\u00e0ng - x\u1eed \u0111o\u00e1n\u201d. C\u0103n c\u1ee9 v\u00e0o ngh\u0129a c\u1ee7a t\u1eebng t\u1eeb ri\u00eang r\u1ebd, c\u00f3 th\u1ec3 hi\u1ec3u \u201ch\u1ed9i th\u1ea9m\u201d l\u00e0 ng\u01b0\u1eddi th\u1ea5u su\u1ed1t t\u00ecnh l\u00fd tham gia v\u00e0o vi\u1ec7c x\u1eed \u00e1n.\n\n\n\nTrong khi \u0111\u00f3, T\u1eeb \u0111i\u1ec3n ph\u00e1p l\u00fd (dictionnaire juridique) c\u1ee7a Ph\u00e1p \u0111\u1ecbnh ngh\u0129a: Trong ng\u00f4n ng\u1eef ph\u00e1p l\u00fd t\u1ed1 t\u1ee5ng, thu\u1eadt ng\u1eef \u201ch\u1ed9i th\u1ea9m\u201d (assesseur) \u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c s\u1eed d\u1ee5ng \u0111\u1ec3 ch\u1ec9 nh\u1eefng ng\u01b0\u1eddi c\u00f3 th\u1ea9m quy\u1ec1n, th\u00e0nh l\u1eadp v\u00e0 ho\u1ea1t \u0111\u1ed9ng theo th\u1ec3 th\u1ee9c t\u1eadp th\u1ec3, h\u1ed7 tr\u1ee3 th\u1ea9m ph\u00e1n ch\u1ee7 t\u1ecda phi\u00ean t\u00f2a. Thu\u1eadt ng\u1eef n\u00e0y c\u00f2n \u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c d\u00f9ng \u0111\u1ec3 ch\u1ec9 t\u1ea5t c\u1ea3 nh\u1eefng ng\u01b0\u1eddi n\u00e0o tham gia v\u00e0o vi\u1ec7c \u0111\u01b0a ra c\u00e1c quy\u1ebft \u0111\u1ecbnh (ph\u00e1n quy\u1ebft), bao g\u1ed3m c\u1ea3 nh\u1eefng th\u00e0nh vi\u00ean kh\u00f4ng chuy\u00ean ngh\u1ec1 x\u00e9t x\u1eed trong m\u1ed9t s\u1ed1 thi\u1ebft ch\u1ebf t\u01b0 ph\u00e1p nh\u01b0 t\u00f2a \u00e1n th\u01b0\u01a1ng m\u1ea1i, t\u00f2a \u00e1n v\u1ec1 nh\u1eefng v\u1ee5 vi\u1ec7c li\u00ean quan \u0111\u1ebfn an sinh x\u00e3 h\u1ed9i hay t\u00f2a \u00e1n v\u1ec1 nh\u1eefng v\u1ea5n \u0111\u1ec1 n\u00f4ng th\u00f4n. \n\n\n\nT\u1eeb \u0111i\u1ec3n Larousse gi\u1ea3i th\u00edch ngu\u1ed3n g\u1ed1c t\u1eeb \u201ch\u1ed9i th\u1ea9m\u201d (assesseur) trong ti\u1ebfng Ph\u00e1p b\u1eaft ngu\u1ed3n t\u1eeb thu\u1eadt ng\u1eef \u201cassessor\u201d c\u1ee7a ti\u1ebfng La tinh, c\u00f3 ngh\u0129a l\u00e0 \u201cgi\u00fap \u0111\u1ee1 ho\u1eb7c \u0111\u01b0a ra l\u1eddi khuy\u00ean\u201d. C\u00e1c t\u00e1c gi\u1ea3 T\u1eeb \u0111i\u1ec3n Larousse cho r\u1eb1ng t\u1eeb \u201ch\u1ed9i th\u1ea9m\u201d (assesseur) trong ti\u1ebfng Ph\u00e1p c\u00f3 4 ngh\u0129a: 1) l\u00e0 th\u1ea9m ph\u00e1n gi\u00fap \u0111\u1ee1, h\u1ed7 tr\u1ee3 ch\u1ee7 t\u1ecda phi\u00ean t\u00f2a v\u00e0 ngh\u1ecb \u00e1n c\u00f9ng v\u1edbi \u00f4ng ta; 2) l\u00e0 danh t\u1eeb d\u00f9ng \u0111\u1ec3 ch\u1ec9 th\u00e0nh vi\u00ean c\u1ee7a m\u1ed9t s\u1ed1 thi\u1ebft ch\u1ebf t\u01b0 ph\u00e1p \u0111\u1eb7c bi\u1ec7t (nh\u01b0 t\u00f2a \u00e1n v\u1ec1 nh\u1eefng v\u1ea5n \u0111\u1ec1 n\u00f4ng th\u00f4n hay t\u00f2a th\u01b0\u01a1ng m\u1ea1i li\u00ean quan \u0111\u1ebfn c\u00e1c giao th\u01b0\u01a1ng tr\u00ean bi\u1ec3n) ho\u1eb7c th\u00e0nh vi\u00ean c\u1ee7a c\u00e1c v\u0103n ph\u00f2ng b\u1ea7u c\u1eed qu\u1ed1c gia; 3) d\u01b0\u1edbi th\u1eddi \u0111\u1ebf ch\u1ebf La m\u00e3 th\u1ed1ng tr\u1ecb, h\u1ed9i th\u1ea9m (assesseur) l\u00e0 nh\u1eefng lu\u1eadt gia c\u1ed1 v\u1ea5n c\u00f3 nhi\u1ec7m v\u1ee5 h\u1ed7 tr\u1ee3 v\u1ec1 m\u1eb7t ph\u00e1p l\u00fd cho c\u00e1c th\u1ea9m ph\u00e1n ra ph\u00e1n quy\u1ebft; 4) trong ch\u1ebf \u0111\u1ed9 c\u0169 (tr\u01b0\u1edbc c\u00e1ch m\u1ea1ng 1789 \u1edf Ph\u00e1p), h\u1ed9i th\u1ea9m l\u00e0 nh\u1eefng ng\u01b0\u1eddi gi\u00fap \u0111\u1ee1 cho ng\u01b0\u1eddi \u0111\u1ee9ng \u0111\u1ea7u c\u00e1c t\u1ed5 ch\u1ee9c t\u01b0 ph\u00e1p ho\u1eb7c l\u00e0 nh\u1eefng nh\u00e2n vi\u00ean t\u01b0 ph\u00e1p tham d\u1ef1 ho\u1ea1t \u0111\u1ed9ng x\u00e9t x\u1eed v\u1edbi c\u00e1c th\u1ea9m ph\u00e1n trong c\u00e1c phi\u00ean t\u00f2a h\u00ecnh s\u1ef1. Theo T\u1eeb \u0111i\u1ec3n ph\u1ed5 th\u00f4ng wikipedia.org tr\u00ean m\u1ea1ng internet th\u00ec \u201ch\u1ed9i th\u1ea9m\u201d (assesseur) l\u00e0 ng\u01b0\u1eddi ng\u1ed3i b\u00ean c\u1ea1nh m\u1ed9t ng\u01b0\u1eddi kh\u00e1c \u0111\u1ec3 gi\u00fap \u0111\u1ee1 ng\u01b0\u1eddi n\u00e0y th\u1ef1c hi\u1ec7n ch\u1ee9c n\u0103ng, nhi\u1ec7m v\u1ee5 c\u1ee7a h\u1ecd v\u00e0 b\u1ed5 sung, h\u1ed7 tr\u1ee3 h\u1ecd khi th\u1ea5y c\u1ea7n thi\u1ebft <2>.\n\n\n\nTheo T\u1eeb \u0111i\u1ec3n ti\u1ebfng Vi\u1ec7t (do Ho\u00e0ng Ph\u00ea ch\u1ee7 bi\u00ean) th\u00ec \u201ch\u1ed9i th\u1ea9m nh\u00e2n d\u00e2n\u201d \u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c \u0111\u1ecbnh ngh\u0129a \u201cNg\u01b0\u1eddi do h\u1ed9i \u0111\u1ed3ng nh\u00e2n d\u00e2n b\u00e2\u0300u ra trong m\u1ed9t th\u1eddi gian nh\u1ea5t \u0111\u1ecbnh cu\u0300ng v\u01a1\u0301i th\u1ea9m ph\u00e1n l\u00e0m nhi\u1ec7m v\u1ee5 x\u00e9t x\u1eed c\u00e1c v\u1ee5 \u00e1n xa\u0309y ra \u01a1\u0309 \u0111\u1ecba ph\u01b0\u01a1ng\u201d<3> . V\u1edbi c\u00e1ch hi\u1ec3u n\u00e0y, h\u1ed9i th\u1ea9m nh\u00e2n d\u00e2n l\u00e0 ng\u01b0\u1eddi \u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c h\u1ed9i \u0111\u1ed3ng nh\u00e2n d\u00e2n b\u1ea7u theo nhi\u1ec7m k\u1ef3 \u0111\u1ec3 c\u00f9ng v\u1edbi th\u1ea9m ph\u00e1n l\u00e0m nhi\u1ec7m v\u1ee5 x\u00e9t x\u1eed c\u00e1c v\u1ee5 \u00e1n thu\u1ed9c th\u1ea9m quy\u1ec1n c\u1ee7a t\u00f2a \u00e1n \u1edf \u0111\u1ecba ph\u01b0\u01a1ng. Trong khi \u0111\u00f3, T\u1eeb \u0111i\u1ec3n Lu\u1eadt h\u1ecdc ghi nh\u1eadn: \u201cH\u1ed9i th\u1ea9m nh\u00e2n d\u00e2n, m\u1ed9t ch\u1ebf \u0111\u1ecbnh quan tr\u1ecdng th\u1ec3 hi\u1ec7n t\u00ednh ch\u1ea5t d\u00e2n ch\u1ee7 trong ho\u1ea1t \u0111\u1ed9ng x\u00e9t x\u1eed c\u1ee7a c\u00e1c t\u00f2a \u00e1n Vi\u1ec7t Nam. Ch\u1ebf \u0111\u1ecbnh n\u00e0y \u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c ghi nh\u1eadn trong Hi\u1ebfn ph\u00e1p n\u0103m 1946 v\u00e0 ti\u1ebfp t\u1ee5c \u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c kh\u1eb3ng \u0111\u1ecbnh trong c\u00e1c Hi\u1ebfn ph\u00e1p n\u0103m 1959, 1980, 1992 v\u00e0 \u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c c\u1ee5 th\u1ec3 h\u00f3a trong B\u1ed9 lu\u1eadt T\u1ed1 t\u1ee5ng h\u00ecnh s\u1ef1 v\u00e0 trong Ph\u00e1p l\u1ec7nh ng\u00e0y 14\/5\/1993 v\u1ec1 th\u1ea9m ph\u00e1n v\u00e0 h\u1ed9i th\u1ea9m nh\u00e2n d\u00e2n. H\u1ed9i th\u1ea9m tham gia v\u00e0o ho\u1ea1t \u0111\u1ed9ng x\u00e9t x\u1eed c\u1ee7a t\u00f2a \u00e1n l\u00e0 bi\u1ec3u hi\u1ec7n c\u1ee7a vi\u1ec7c nh\u00e2n d\u00e2n th\u1ef1c hi\u1ec7n quy\u1ec1n l\u1ef1c c\u1ee7a m\u00ecnh, tham gia tr\u1ef1c ti\u1ebfp v\u00e0o qu\u1ea3n l\u00fd c\u00f4ng vi\u1ec7c c\u1ee7a nh\u00e0 n\u01b0\u1edbc v\u00e0 c\u1ee7a x\u00e3 h\u1ed9i\u2026.\u201d<4> .\n\n\n\nC\u00f2n v\u1edbi khoa h\u1ecdc ph\u00e1p l\u00fd, c\u1ee5m t\u1eeb \u201ch\u1ed9i th\u1ea9m nh\u00e2n d\u00e2n\u201d \u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c th\u1ec3 hi\u1ec7n t\u1eeb thu\u1eadt ng\u1eef \u201ch\u1ed9i th\u1ea9m\u201d t\u1ea1i kho\u1ea3n 2 \u0110i\u1ec1u 1 Ph\u00e1p l\u1ec7nh s\u1ed1 16-L\/CTN ng\u00e0y 14\/5\/1993 c\u1ee7a \u1ee6y ban Th\u01b0\u1eddng v\u1ee5 Qu\u1ed1c h\u1ed9i v\u1ec1 th\u1ea9m ph\u00e1n v\u00e0 h\u1ed9i th\u1ea9m t\u00f2a \u00e1n nh\u00e2n d\u00e2n. Theo \u0111\u00f3, \u201ch\u1ed9i th\u1ea9m l\u00e0 ng\u01b0\u1eddi \u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c b\u1ea7u ho\u1eb7c c\u1eed theo quy \u0111\u1ecbnh c\u1ee7a ph\u00e1p lu\u1eadt \u0111\u1ec3 l\u00e0m nhi\u1ec7m v\u1ee5 x\u00e9t x\u1eed nh\u1eefng v\u1ee5 \u00e1n thu\u1ed9c th\u1ea9m quy\u1ec1n c\u1ee7a to\u00e0 \u00e1n\u201d. Thu\u1eadt ng\u1eef n\u00e0y ti\u1ebfp t\u1ee5c \u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c quy \u0111\u1ecbnh t\u1ea1i Ph\u00e1p l\u1ec7nh s\u1ed1 02\/2002\/PL-UBTVQH 11 ng\u00e0y 04\/10\/2002 c\u1ee7a \u1ee6y ban Th\u01b0\u1eddng v\u1ee5 Qu\u1ed1c h\u1ed9i v\u1ec1 th\u1ea9m ph\u00e1n v\u00e0 h\u1ed9i th\u1ea9m t\u00f2a \u00e1n nh\u00e2n d\u00e2n. C\u1ee5 th\u1ec3, kho\u1ea3n 2 \u0110i\u1ec1u 5 Ph\u00e1p l\u1ec7nh n\u00e0y ghi: \u201cC\u00f4ng d\u00e2n Vi\u1ec7t Nam trung th\u00e0nh v\u1edbi T\u1ed5 qu\u1ed1c v\u00e0 Hi\u1ebfn ph\u00e1p n\u01b0\u1edbc CHXHCN Vi\u1ec7t Nam, c\u00f3 ph\u1ea9m ch\u1ea5t \u0111\u1ea1o \u0111\u1ee9c t\u1ed1t, li\u00eam khi\u1ebft v\u00e0 trung th\u1ef1c, c\u00f3 ki\u1ebfn th\u1ee9c ph\u00e1p l\u00fd, c\u00f3 tinh th\u1ea7n ki\u00ean quy\u1ebft b\u1ea3o v\u1ec7 l\u1ee3i \u00edch c\u1ee7a Nh\u00e0 n\u01b0\u1edbc, quy\u1ec1n v\u00e0 l\u1ee3i \u00edch h\u1ee3p ph\u00e1p c\u1ee7a c\u00f4ng d\u00e2n, c\u00f3 s\u1ee9c kh\u1ecfe \u0111\u1ec3 b\u1ea3o \u0111\u1ea3m ho\u00e0n th\u00e0nh nhi\u1ec7m v\u1ee5 \u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c giao th\u00ec c\u00f3 th\u1ec3 \u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c b\u1ea7u ho\u1eb7c c\u1eed l\u00e0m h\u1ed9i th\u1ea9m\u201d.\n\n\n\nB\u00ean c\u1ea1nh \u0111\u00f3, kho\u1ea3n 3 \u0110i\u1ec1u 2 Ph\u00e1p l\u1ec7nh s\u1eeda \u0111\u1ed5i, b\u1ed5 sung m\u1ed9t s\u1ed1 \u0111i\u1ec1u Ph\u00e1p l\u1ec7nh v\u1ec1 th\u1ea9m ph\u00e1n v\u00e0 h\u1ed9i th\u1ea9m c\u1ee7a t\u00f2a \u00e1n nh\u00e2n d\u00e2n (Ph\u00e1p l\u1ec7nh s\u1ed1 14\/2011\/UBTVQH12, ng\u00e0y 19\/02\/2011 c\u1ee7a \u1ee6y ban Th\u01b0\u1eddng v\u1ee5 Qu\u1ed1c h\u1ed9i) quy \u0111\u1ecbnh: \u201cH\u1ed9i th\u1ea9m t\u00f2a \u00e1n nh\u00e2n d\u00e2n \u1edf n\u01b0\u1edbc CHXHCN Vi\u1ec7t Nam g\u1ed3m c\u00f3: a) h\u1ed9i th\u1ea9m nh\u00e2n d\u00e2n t\u00f2a \u00e1n nh\u00e2n d\u00e2n c\u1ea5p t\u1ec9nh, h\u1ed9i th\u1ea9m nh\u00e2n d\u00e2n t\u00f2a \u00e1n nh\u00e2n d\u00e2n c\u1ea5p huy\u1ec7n (g\u1ecdi chung l\u00e0 h\u1ed9i th\u1ea9m nh\u00e2n d\u00e2n); b) h\u1ed9i th\u1ea9m qu\u00e2n nh\u00e2n t\u00f2a \u00e1n qu\u00e2n s\u1ef1 qu\u00e2n khu v\u00e0 t\u01b0\u01a1ng \u0111\u01b0\u01a1ng, h\u1ed9i th\u1ea9m qu\u00e2n nh\u00e2n t\u00f2a \u00e1n qu\u00e2n s\u1ef1 khu v\u1ef1c (g\u1ecdi chung l\u00e0 h\u1ed9i th\u1ea9m qu\u00e2n nh\u00e2n)\u201d. So v\u1edbi Ph\u00e1p l\u1ec7nh s\u1ed1 16-L\/CTN, Ph\u00e1p l\u1ec7nh s\u1ed1 02\/2002\/PL-UBTVQH11 v\u00e0 Ph\u00e1p l\u1ec7nh s\u1ed1 14\/2011\/UBTVQH12, ng\u00e0y 19\/02\/2011 c\u1ee7a \u1ee6y ban Th\u01b0\u1eddng v\u1ee5 Qu\u1ed1c h\u1ed9i, \u201ch\u1ed9i th\u1ea9m\u201d \u0111\u00e3 \u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c n\u00eau c\u1ee5 th\u1ec3, r\u00f5 r\u00e0ng, \u0111\u1ea7y \u0111\u1ee7 h\u01a1n, \u0111\u00f3 l\u00e0 \u201ch\u1ed9i th\u1ea9m nh\u00e2n d\u00e2n t\u00f2a \u00e1n nh\u00e2n d\u00e2n\u201d v\u00e0 \u201ch\u1ed9i th\u1ea9m qu\u00e2n nh\u00e2n t\u00f2a \u00e1n qu\u00e2n s\u1ef1\u201d.

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\u0110\u1eb7c bi\u1ec7t, so v\u1edbi tr\u01b0\u1edbc \u0111\u00e2y, Hi\u1ebfn ph\u00e1p n\u0103m 2013 v\u00e0 c\u00e1c v\u0103n b\u1ea3n ph\u00e1p l\u00fd m\u1edbi \u0111\u00e2y, b\u00ean c\u1ea1nh vi\u1ec7c quy \u0111\u1ecbnh c\u1ee5 th\u1ec3, r\u00f5 h\u01a1n v\u1ec1 vai tr\u00f2, v\u1ecb tr\u00ed c\u1ee7a t\u00f2a \u00e1n nh\u00e2n d\u00e2n, c\u00f2n x\u00e1c \u0111\u1ecbnh h\u1ed9i th\u1ea9m l\u00e0 ng\u01b0\u1eddi tham gia ti\u1ebfn h\u00e0nh ho\u1ea1t \u0111\u1ed9ng t\u1ed1 t\u1ee5ng, thay v\u00ec ch\u1ec9 tham gia x\u00e9t x\u1eed nh\u01b0 tr\u01b0\u1edbc \u0111\u00e2y.\n\n\n\nT\u1eeb \u0111\u00f3, c\u00f3 th\u1ec3 \u0111\u1ecbnh ngh\u0129a nh\u01b0 sau: H\u1ed9i th\u1ea9m nh\u00e2n d\u00e2n l\u00e0 c\u00f4ng d\u00e2n Vi\u1ec7t Nam c\u00f3 s\u1ee9c kh\u1ecfe, uy t\u00edn, c\u00f3 ki\u1ebfn th\u1ee9c v\u1ec1 ph\u00e1p lu\u1eadt v\u00e0 hi\u1ec3u bi\u1ebft x\u00e3 h\u1ed9i, \u0111\u01b0\u01a1\u0323c b\u1ea7u ra \u0111\u00ea\u0309 tham gia ti\u1ebfn h\u00e0nh ho\u1ea1t \u0111\u1ed9ng t\u1ed1 t\u1ee5ng nh\u1eefng v\u1ee5 \u00e1n thu\u1ed9c th\u1ea9m quy\u1ec1n cu\u0309a t\u00f2a \u00e1n theo quy \u0111\u1ecbnh c\u1ee7a ph\u00e1p lu\u1eadt.\n\n\n\n\u0110i\u1ec1u ki\u1ec7n, th\u1ee7 t\u1ee5c b\u1ea7u, mi\u1ec5n nhi\u1ec7m, b\u00e3i nhi\u1ec7m h\u1ed9i th\u1ea9m nh\u00e2n d\u00e2n\n\n\n\nNg\u01b0\u1eddi \u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c l\u1ef1a ch\u1ecdn \u0111\u1ec3 b\u1ea7u l\u00e0m h\u1ed9i th\u1ea9m nh\u00e2n d\u00e2n hi\u1ec7n nay \u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c quy \u0111\u1ecbnh t\u1ea1i Ph\u00e1p l\u1ec7nh v\u1ec1 th\u1ea9m ph\u00e1n v\u00e0 h\u1ed9i th\u1ea9m t\u00f2a \u00e1n nh\u00e2n d\u00e2n n\u0103m 2002 v\u00e0 Lu\u1eadt T\u1ed5 ch\u1ee9c t\u00f2a \u00e1n nh\u00e2n d\u00e2n n\u0103m 2014. C\u1ee5 th\u1ec3: \u201c1. L\u00e0 c\u00f4ng d\u00e2n Vi\u1ec7t Nam, trung th\u00e0nh v\u1edbi T\u1ed5 qu\u1ed1c v\u00e0 Hi\u1ebfn ph\u00e1p n\u01b0\u1edbc CHXHCN Vi\u1ec7t Nam, c\u00f3 ph\u1ea9m ch\u1ea5t \u0111\u1ea1o \u0111\u1ee9c t\u1ed1t, c\u00f3 b\u1ea3n l\u0129nh ch\u00ednh tr\u1ecb v\u1eefng v\u00e0ng, c\u00f3 uy t\u00edn trong c\u1ed9ng \u0111\u1ed3ng d\u00e2n c\u01b0, c\u00f3 tinh th\u1ea7n d\u0169ng c\u1ea3m v\u00e0 ki\u00ean quy\u1ebft b\u1ea3o v\u1ec7 c\u00f4ng l\u00fd, li\u00eam khi\u1ebft v\u00e0 trung th\u1ef1c; 2. C\u00f3 ki\u1ebfn th\u1ee9c ph\u00e1p lu\u1eadt; 3. C\u00f3 hi\u1ec3u bi\u1ebft x\u00e3 h\u1ed9i; 4. C\u00f3 s\u1ee9c kh\u1ecfe b\u1ea3o \u0111\u1ea3m ho\u00e0n th\u00e0nh nhi\u1ec7m v\u1ee5 \u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c giao\u201d.\n\n\n\n\u0110i\u1ec1u 86 Lu\u1eadt T\u1ed5 ch\u1ee9c t\u00f2a \u00e1n nh\u00e2n d\u00e2n n\u0103m 2014 c\u0169ng quy \u0111\u1ecbnh: t\u00f2a \u00e1n nh\u00e2n d\u00e2n c\u1ea5p t\u1ec9nh, t\u00f2a \u00e1n nh\u00e2n d\u00e2n c\u1ea5p huy\u1ec7n v\u00e0 t\u01b0\u01a1ng \u0111\u01b0\u01a1ng \u0111\u1ec1 xu\u1ea5t nhu c\u1ea7u v\u1ec1 s\u1ed1 l\u01b0\u1ee3ng, c\u01a1 c\u1ea5u th\u00e0nh ph\u1ea7n h\u1ed9i th\u1ea9m \u0111\u1ec1 ngh\u1ecb \u1ee6y ban M\u1eb7t tr\u1eadn T\u1ed5 qu\u1ed1c Vi\u1ec7t Nam c\u00f9ng c\u1ea5p l\u1ef1a ch\u1ecdn v\u00e0 gi\u1edbi thi\u1ec7u ng\u01b0\u1eddi \u0111\u1ee7 ti\u00eau chu\u1ea9n theo quy \u0111\u1ecbnh \u0111\u1ec3 h\u1ed9i \u0111\u1ed3ng nh\u00e2n d\u00e2n c\u00f3 th\u1ea9m quy\u1ec1n theo lu\u1eadt \u0111\u1ecbnh b\u1ea7u h\u1ed9i th\u1ea9m nh\u00e2n d\u00e2n. Nhi\u1ec7m k\u1ef3 c\u1ee7a h\u1ed9i th\u1ea9m nh\u00e2n d\u00e2n theo nhi\u1ec7m k\u1ef3 c\u1ee7a h\u1ed9i \u0111\u1ed3ng nh\u00e2n d\u00e2n c\u00f9ng c\u1ea5p (5 n\u0103m) v\u00e0 khi h\u1ed9i \u0111\u1ed3ng nh\u00e2n d\u00e2n h\u1ebft nhi\u1ec7m k\u1ef3, h\u1ed9i th\u1ea9m nh\u00e2n d\u00e2n ti\u1ebfp t\u1ee5c l\u00e0m nhi\u1ec7m v\u1ee5 \u0111\u1ebfn khi h\u1ed9i \u0111\u1ed3ng nh\u00e2n d\u00e2n kh\u00f3a m\u1edbi b\u1ea7u \u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c h\u1ed9i th\u1ea9m nh\u00e2n d\u00e2n m\u1edbi. B\u00ean c\u1ea1nh \u0111\u00f3, Th\u00f4ng t\u01b0 li\u00ean t\u1ecbch s\u1ed1 01\/2004\/TTLT\/TANDTC-UBTWMTTQVN ng\u00e0y 01\/3\/2004 c\u1ee7a T\u00f2a \u00e1n nh\u00e2n d\u00e2n t\u1ed1i cao v\u00e0 \u1ee6y ban Trung \u01b0\u01a1ng M\u1eb7t tr\u1eadn T\u1ed5 qu\u1ed1c Vi\u1ec7t Nam h\u01b0\u1edbng d\u1eabn vi\u1ec7c chu\u1ea9n b\u1ecb nh\u00e2n s\u1ef1 v\u00e0 gi\u1edbi thi\u1ec7u b\u1ea7u h\u1ed9i th\u1ea9m t\u00f2a \u00e1n nh\u00e2n d\u00e2n, ng\u01b0\u1eddi \u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c ch\u1ecdn \u0111\u1ec3 b\u1ea7u l\u00e0m h\u1ed9i th\u1ea9m c\u00f2n ph\u1ea3i l\u00e0 ng\u01b0\u1eddi ch\u01b0a bao gi\u1edd b\u1ecb k\u1ebft \u00e1n; ng\u01b0\u1eddi \u0111ang c\u00f4ng t\u00e1c t\u1ea1i c\u00e1c c\u01a1 quan t\u00f2a \u00e1n, vi\u1ec7n ki\u1ec3m s\u00e1t, c\u01a1 quan \u0111i\u1ec1u tra, thi h\u00e0nh \u00e1n, lu\u1eadt s\u01b0 (k\u1ec3 c\u1ea3 nh\u1eefng ng\u01b0\u1eddi \u0111ang l\u00e0m vi\u1ec7c t\u1ea1i c\u00e1c t\u1ed5 ch\u1ee9c h\u00e0nh ngh\u1ec1 lu\u1eadt s\u01b0, t\u01b0 v\u1ea5n ph\u00e1p l\u00fd). C\u00f9ng v\u1edbi c\u00f3 s\u1ee9c kh\u1ecfe \u0111\u1ec3 b\u1ea3o \u0111\u1ea3m ho\u00e0n th\u00e0nh nhi\u1ec7m v\u1ee5, ng\u01b0\u1eddi \u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c l\u1ef1a ch\u1ecdn gi\u1edbi thi\u1ec7u l\u00e0m h\u1ed9i th\u1ea9m c\u00f2n ph\u1ea3i l\u00e0 ng\u01b0\u1eddi kh\u00f4ng c\u00f3 d\u1ecb t\u1eadt, d\u1ecb h\u00ecnh \u1ea3nh h\u01b0\u1edfng \u0111\u1ebfn vi\u1ec7c th\u1ef1c hi\u1ec7n nhi\u1ec7m v\u1ee5 h\u1ed9i th\u1ea9m; tu\u1ed5i c\u1ee7a h\u1ed9i th\u1ea9m nam kh\u00f4ng qu\u00e1 70, h\u1ed9i th\u1ea9m n\u1eef kh\u00f4ng qu\u00e1 65; ch\u00fa \u00fd l\u1ef1a ch\u1ecdn ng\u01b0\u1eddi thu\u1ed9c c\u00e1c t\u1ed5 ch\u1ee9c x\u00e3 h\u1ed9i, \u0111o\u00e0n th\u1ec3,\u2026\n\n\n\nNgo\u00e0i ra, kho\u1ea3n 2 \u0110i\u1ec1u 4 Quy ch\u1ebf t\u1ed5 ch\u1ee9c v\u00e0 ho\u1ea1t \u0111\u1ed9ng c\u1ee7a \u0111o\u00e0n h\u1ed9i th\u1ea9m quy \u0111\u1ecbnh: \u201cT\u1ea1i t\u00f2a \u00e1n nh\u00e2n d\u00e2n c\u1ea5p t\u1ec9nh, c\u1ee9 02 th\u1ea9m ph\u00e1n th\u00ec c\u00f3 03 h\u1ed9i th\u1ea9m, nh\u01b0ng t\u1ed5ng s\u1ed1 h\u1ed9i th\u1ea9m t\u1ea1i m\u1ed9t t\u00f2a \u00e1n nh\u00e2n d\u00e2n c\u1ea5p t\u1ec9nh kh\u00f4ng d\u01b0\u1edbi 20 ng\u01b0\u1eddi v\u00e0 t\u1ed1i \u0111a kh\u00f4ng qu\u00e1 100 ng\u01b0\u1eddi; t\u1ea1i t\u00f2a \u00e1n nh\u00e2n d\u00e2n c\u1ea5p huy\u1ec7n, c\u1ee9 01 th\u1ea9m ph\u00e1n th\u00ec c\u00f3 02 h\u1ed9i th\u1ea9m, nh\u01b0ng t\u1ed5ng s\u1ed1 h\u1ed9i th\u1ea9m t\u1ea1i m\u1ed9t t\u00f2a \u00e1n nh\u00e2n d\u00e2n c\u1ea5p huy\u1ec7n kh\u00f4ng d\u01b0\u1edbi 15 ng\u01b0\u1eddi v\u00e0 t\u1ed1i \u0111a kh\u00f4ng qu\u00e1 50 ng\u01b0\u1eddi, tr\u1eeb tr\u01b0\u1eddng h\u1ee3p \u0111\u1eb7c bi\u1ec7t c\u00f3 th\u1ec3 c\u00f3 d\u01b0\u1edbi 15 ng\u01b0\u1eddi\u201d.\n\n\n\nNh\u01b0 v\u1eady, nh\u1eefng ng\u01b0\u1eddi \u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c b\u1ea7u l\u00e0m h\u1ed9i th\u1ea9m nh\u00e2n d\u00e2n kh\u00f4ng ch\u1ec9 ph\u1ea3i \u0111\u00e1p \u1ee9ng c\u00e1c y\u00eau c\u1ea7u v\u1ec1 ph\u1ea9m ch\u1ea5t \u0111\u1ea1o \u0111\u1ee9c, s\u1ee9c kh\u1ecfe, c\u00e1c \u0111i\u1ec1u ki\u1ec7n v\u1ec1 ki\u1ebfn th\u1ee9c x\u00e3 h\u1ed9i, hi\u1ec3u bi\u1ebft x\u00e3 h\u1ed9i, m\u00e0 c\u00f2n ph\u1ea3i th\u1ecfa m\u00e3n v\u1ec1 \u0111\u1ed9 tu\u1ed5i, ngo\u1ea1i h\u00ecnh, th\u00e0nh ph\u1ea7n c\u01a1 c\u1ea5u, ph\u00f9 h\u1ee3p v\u1edbi s\u1ed1 l\u01b0\u1ee3ng th\u1ea9m ph\u00e1n v\u00e0 t\u00ecnh h\u00ecnh th\u1ef1c t\u1ebf c\u1ee7a m\u1ed7i c\u1ea5p t\u00f2a \u00e1n \u0111\u1ecba ph\u01b0\u01a1ng. Th\u1ee7 t\u1ee5c b\u1ea7u h\u1ed9i th\u1ea9m nh\u00e2n d\u00e2n ph\u1ea3i tr\u1ea3i qua m\u1ed9t tr\u00ecnh t\u1ef1 ch\u1eb7t ch\u1ebd, \u0111\u00f3 l\u00e0 tr\u00ean c\u01a1 s\u1edf nhu c\u1ea7u th\u1ef1c t\u1ebf, ch\u00e1nh \u00e1n t\u00f2a \u00e1n c\u1ea5p huy\u1ec7n ho\u1eb7c c\u1ea5p t\u1ec9nh \u0111\u1ec1 ngh\u1ecb v\u1edbi \u1ee6y ban M\u1eb7t tr\u1eadn T\u1ed5 qu\u1ed1c Vi\u1ec7t Nam c\u00f9ng c\u1ea5p, \u1ee6y ban M\u1eb7t tr\u1eadn T\u1ed5 qu\u1ed1c Vi\u1ec7t Nam s\u1ebd l\u1ef1a ch\u1ecdn v\u00e0 gi\u1edbi thi\u1ec7u \u0111\u1ec3 h\u1ed9i \u0111\u1ed3ng nh\u00e2n d\u00e2n c\u00f3 th\u1ea9m quy\u1ec1n b\u1ea7u ra c\u00e1c h\u1ed9i th\u1ea9m theo quy lu\u1eadt.\n\n\n\nVi\u1ec7c mi\u1ec5n nhi\u1ec7m, b\u00e3i nhi\u1ec7m \u0111\u1ed1i v\u1edbi h\u1ed9i th\u1ea9m nh\u00e2n d\u00e2n \u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c quy \u0111\u1ecbnh t\u1ea1i \u0110i\u1ec1u 86 Lu\u1eadt T\u1ed5 ch\u1ee9c t\u00f2a \u00e1n nh\u00e2n d\u00e2n n\u0103m 2014. C\u1ee5 th\u1ec3, ch\u00e1nh \u00e1n t\u00f2a \u00e1n nh\u00e2n d\u00e2n sau khi th\u1ed1ng nh\u1ea5t v\u1edbi \u1ee6y ban M\u1eb7t tr\u1eadn T\u1ed5 qu\u1ed1c Vi\u1ec7t Nam c\u00f9ng c\u1ea5p \u0111\u1ec1 ngh\u1ecb h\u1ed9i \u0111\u1ed3ng nh\u00e2n d\u00e2n mi\u1ec5n nhi\u1ec7m, b\u00e3i nhi\u1ec7m h\u1ed9i th\u1ea9m nh\u00e2n d\u00e2n. C\u00f9ng v\u1edbi \u0111\u00f3, \u0110i\u1ec1u 90 c\u1ee7a Lu\u1eadt n\u00e0y quy \u0111\u1ecbnh: h\u1ed9i th\u1ea9m c\u00f3 th\u1ec3 \u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c mi\u1ec5n nhi\u1ec7m v\u00ec l\u00fd do s\u1ee9c kh\u1ecfe ho\u1eb7c l\u00fd do ch\u00ednh \u0111\u00e1ng kh\u00e1c; h\u1ed9i th\u1ea9m b\u1ecb b\u00e3i nhi\u1ec7m khi c\u00f3 vi ph\u1ea1m v\u1ec1 ph\u1ea9m ch\u1ea5t \u0111\u1ea1o \u0111\u1ee9c ho\u1eb7c c\u00f3 h\u00e0nh vi vi ph\u1ea1m ph\u00e1p lu\u1eadt kh\u00f4ng c\u00f2n x\u1ee9ng \u0111\u00e1ng l\u00e0m h\u1ed9i th\u1ea9m.\n\n\n\nNgo\u00e0i ra, vi\u1ec7c gi\u1edbi thi\u1ec7u b\u1ea7u, b\u00e3i nhi\u1ec7m, mi\u1ec5n nhi\u1ec7m h\u1ed9i th\u1ea9m c\u00f2n \u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c T\u00f2a \u00e1n nh\u00e2n d\u00e2n t\u1ed1i cao quy \u0111\u1ecbnh t\u1ea1i Th\u00f4ng t\u01b0 s\u1ed1 03\/2009\/TT-TANDTC ng\u00e0y 05\/3\/2009 h\u01b0\u1edbng d\u1eabn vi\u1ec7c gi\u1edbi thi\u1ec7u b\u1ea7u v\u00e0 \u0111\u1ec1 ngh\u1ecb mi\u1ec5n nhi\u1ec7m, b\u00e3i nhi\u1ec7m h\u1ed9i th\u1ea9m t\u00f2a \u00e1n nh\u00e2n d\u00e2n huy\u1ec7n, qu\u1eadn n\u01a1i kh\u00f4ng t\u1ed5 ch\u1ee9c h\u1ed9i \u0111\u1ed3ng nh\u00e2n d\u00e2n. Theo \u0111\u00f3, \u0111\u1ed1i v\u1edbi nh\u1eefng n\u01a1i kh\u00f4ng t\u1ed5 ch\u1ee9c h\u1ed9i \u0111\u1ed3ng nh\u00e2n d\u00e2n c\u1ea5p huy\u1ec7n, vi\u1ec7c b\u1ea7u, \u0111\u1ec1 ngh\u1ecb mi\u1ec5n nhi\u1ec7m, b\u00e3i nhi\u1ec7m h\u1ed9i th\u1ea9m nh\u00e2n d\u00e2n c\u1ea5p huy\u1ec7n v\u1eabn d\u1ef1a tr\u00ean c\u01a1 s\u1edf \u0111\u1ec1 ngh\u1ecb c\u1ee7a ch\u00e1nh \u00e1n t\u00f2a \u00e1n nh\u00e2n d\u00e2n c\u1ea5p huy\u1ec7n v\u00e0 sau khi th\u1ed1ng nh\u1ea5t v\u1edbi \u1ee6y ban M\u1eb7t tr\u1eadn T\u1ed5 qu\u1ed1c Vi\u1ec7t Nam c\u00f9ng c\u1ea5p s\u1ebd b\u00e1o c\u00e1o ch\u00e1nh \u00e1n t\u00f2a \u00e1n nh\u00e2n d\u00e2n c\u1ea5p t\u1ec9nh. Ch\u00e1nh \u00e1n t\u00f2a \u00e1n nh\u00e2n d\u00e2n c\u1ea5p t\u1ec9nh s\u1ebd trao \u0111\u1ed5i v\u1edbi Ban th\u01b0\u1eddng tr\u1ef1c \u1ee6y ban M\u1eb7t tr\u1eadn T\u1ed5 qu\u1ed1c Vi\u1ec7t Nam \u0111\u1ec3 h\u1ed9i \u0111\u1ed3ng nh\u00e2n d\u00e2n c\u1ea5p t\u1ec9nh ti\u1ebfn h\u00e0nh th\u1ee7 t\u1ee5c b\u1ea7u ho\u1eb7c b\u00e3i nhi\u1ec7m, mi\u1ec5n nhi\u1ec7m.\n\n\n\nTheo \u0111\u00f3, h\u1ed9i th\u1ea9m nh\u00e2n d\u00e2n s\u1ebd \u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c mi\u1ec5n nhi\u1ec7m khi kh\u00f4ng b\u1ea3o \u0111\u1ea3m v\u1ec1 s\u1ee9c kh\u1ecfe hay v\u00ec l\u00fd do ch\u00ednh \u0111\u00e1ng kh\u00e1c m\u00e0 kh\u00f4ng c\u00f3 th\u1ec3 \u0111\u1ea3m nhi\u1ec7m \u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c vai tr\u00f2 h\u1ed9i th\u1ea9m. Vi\u1ec7c b\u00e3i nhi\u1ec7m h\u1ed9i th\u1ea9m di\u1ec5n ra khi h\u1ed9i th\u1ea9m c\u00f3 vi ph\u1ea1m v\u1ec1 \u0111\u1ea1o \u0111\u1ee9c ho\u1eb7c vi ph\u1ea1m ph\u00e1p lu\u1eadt \u0111\u1ebfn m\u1ee9c kh\u00f4ng c\u00f2n x\u1ee9ng \u0111\u00e1ng l\u00e0m h\u1ed9i th\u1ea9m. M\u1eb7c d\u00f9 \u0111\u1ebfn nay, vi\u1ec7c x\u00e1c \u0111\u1ecbnh \u201cvi ph\u1ea1m ph\u1ea9m ch\u1ea5t \u0111\u1ea1o \u0111\u1ee9c\u201d, \u201cl\u00fd do ch\u00ednh \u0111\u00e1ng\u201d hay \u201cvi ph\u1ea1m ph\u00e1p lu\u1eadt kh\u00f4ng c\u00f2n x\u1ee9ng \u0111\u00e1ng\u201d v\u1eabn ch\u01b0a \u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c l\u00e0m r\u00f5, nh\u01b0ng c\u00f3 th\u1ec3 nh\u1eadn th\u1ea5y vi\u1ec7c mi\u1ec5n nhi\u1ec7m ch\u1ee7 y\u1ebfu l\u00e0 do \u0111\u1ec1 ngh\u1ecb c\u1ee7a ch\u00ednh h\u1ed9i th\u1ea9m, c\u00f2n vi\u1ec7c b\u00e3i nhi\u1ec7m h\u1ed9i th\u1ea9m \u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c xem l\u00e0 bi\u1ec7n ph\u00e1p ch\u1ebf t\u00e0i do c\u00e1c c\u01a1 quan qu\u1ea3n l\u00fd ti\u1ebfn h\u00e0nh, nh\u01b0ng th\u1ee7 t\u1ee5c mi\u1ec5n nhi\u1ec7m hay b\u00e3i nhi\u1ec7m \u0111\u1ec1u ph\u1ea3i \u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c ti\u1ebfn h\u00e0nh sau khi ch\u00e1nh \u00e1n t\u00f2a \u00e1n nh\u00e2n d\u00e2n th\u1ed1ng nh\u1ea5t v\u1edbi \u1ee6y ban M\u1eb7t tr\u1eadn T\u1ed5 qu\u1ed1c Vi\u1ec7t Nam c\u00f9ng c\u1ea5p v\u00e0 ph\u1ea3i \u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c h\u1ed9i \u0111\u1ed3ng nh\u00e2n d\u00e2n c\u1ea5p quan h\u1ec7 t\u01b0\u01a1ng \u0111\u01b0\u01a1ng (c\u1ea5p huy\u1ec7n ho\u1eb7c c\u1ea5p t\u1ec9nh) quy\u1ebft \u0111\u1ecbnh.\n\n\n\n<1> Ph\u1ee5 th\u1ea9m\u201d, \u201ch\u1ed9i th\u1ea9m\u201d c\u00f2n c\u00f3 nh\u1eefng c\u00e1ch g\u1ecdi c\u1ee5 th\u1ec3 kh\u00e1c t\u00f9y theo ho\u00e0n c\u1ea3nh, c\u00e1ch th\u1ee9c t\u1ed5 ch\u1ee9c, ho\u1ea1t \u0111\u1ed9ng v\u00e0 do c\u00e1c v\u0103n b\u1ea3n n\u00eau ra,\u2026 nh\u01b0: \u201cph\u1ee5 th\u1ea9m nh\u00e2n d\u00e2n\u201d, \u201ch\u1ed9i th\u1ea9m nh\u00e2n d\u00e2n\u201d, \u201ch\u1ed9i th\u1ea9m t\u00f2a \u00e1n nh\u00e2n d\u00e2n\u201d, \u201ch\u1ed9i th\u1ea9m nh\u00e2n d\u00e2n t\u00f2a \u00e1n nh\u00e2n d\u00e2n\u201d, \u201ch\u1ed9i th\u1ea9m qu\u00e2n nh\u00e2n\u201d,\u2026 Trong ph\u1ea1m vi n\u1ed9i dung b\u00e0i vi\u1ebft n\u00e0y ch\u1ec9 \u0111\u1ec1 c\u1eadp ch\u1ee7 y\u1ebfu \u0111\u1ebfn \u0111\u1ed1i t\u01b0\u1ee3ng l\u00e0 h\u1ed9i th\u1ea9m nh\u00e2n d\u00e2n tham gia x\u00e9t x\u1eed ho\u1eb7c tham gia t\u1ed1 tung h\u00ecnh s\u1ef1 (kh\u00f4ng bao g\u1ed3m h\u1ed9i th\u1ea9m qu\u00e2n nh\u00e2n). Trong \u0111\u00f3, \u201cph\u1ee5 th\u1ea9m\u201d v\u00e0 \u201ch\u1ed9i th\u1ea9m\u201d \u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c xem nh\u01b0 c\u00f3 \u00fd ngh\u0129a v\u00e0 n\u1ed9i dung quy \u0111\u1ecbnh t\u01b0\u01a1ng \u0111\u1ed1i gi\u1ed1ng nhau v\u00e0 \u201cph\u1ee5 th\u1ea9m\u201d t\u1ed3n t\u1ea1i t\u1eeb n\u0103m 1945 \u0111\u1ebfn n\u0103m 1950, c\u00f2n l\u1ea1i \u0111\u1ec1u \u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c g\u1ecdi l\u00e0 \u201ch\u1ed9i th\u1ea9m\u201d.<2> Tr\u1ea7n Th\u1ecb Kim C\u00fac (2015), \u0110\u1ecba v\u1ecb ph\u00e1p l\u00fd c\u1ee7a h\u1ed9i th\u1ea9m trong t\u1ed1 t\u1ee5ng h\u00ecnh s\u1ef1, Khoa Lu\u1eadt tr\u01b0\u1eddng \u0110\u1ea1i h\u1ecdc qu\u1ed1c gia H\u00e0 N\u1ed9i, Lu\u1eadn v\u0103n th\u1ea1c s\u0129.<3> Ho\u00e0ng Ph\u00ea (ch\u1ee7 bi\u00ean), T\u1eeb \u0111i\u1ec3n ti\u1ebfng Vi\u1ec7t, NXB \u0110\u00e0 N\u1eb5ng, Trung t\u00e2m T\u1eeb \u0111i\u1ec3n, H\u00e0 N\u1ed9i 2011, tr 593.<4> T\u1eeb \u0111i\u1ec3n lu\u1eadt h\u1ecdc, NXB T\u1eeb \u0111i\u1ec3n b\u00e1ch khoa, tr, 229-230.\n\n\n\nTH\u1ea0C S\u0128. LU\u1eacT S\u01af LI\u00caU CH\u00cd TRUNG\n\n\n\n